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Level 1: Introductory

For those starting out!

Perfect for those with no previous training or who are moving on to a new career in Contract Management, Commercial Management or Procurement. Essential training on Procurement, Contract Management, Category Management, Sourcing, Negotiation. Perfect for beginners new to Procurement.

One Day Courses

1. Category Management Essentials

AIM

This workshop aims to equip participants with an overview of the essentials of category management. It explores roles, key activities, tools, and methods category managers use to drive value from the procurement process.

Scope

This workshop explores practical contexts in which practitioners in the procurement process may interact with others both inside and outside their own organisation.   The workshop will develop skills and confidence in diagnostic interviews, presentations, small group facilitation and influencing

Who the course is designed for:

This workshop will be of benefit to practitioners whose role involves them in interacting with others, and who wish to develop their personal confidence and capability in communicating more effectively.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

Attendance will help raise awareness of the category management process and the tools that may be used. As well as this participants will gain three key benefits from attending:

  • More appreciation of what category management involves, and the importance of category management to deliver better outcomes
  • More appreciation of the tools and other resources available to support category managers
  • Less likelihood of the category management process failing to realise the planned benefits

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:

  • Describe the category management framework and identify the ways in which value may be created or lost through effective (or ineffective) category management
  • Define the role of the category manager and describe (in overview) how that role relates to other stakeholders supporting effective category management
  • Identify the tools and resources that are appropriate at each phase of category management

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles. The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

  • Communication skills in overview
  • Interpersonal skills overview
  • Questioning skills and diagnosing information
  • Listening and tuning in to verbal and non-verbal communication
  • Facilitating small groups and teams
  • Influencing people using push and pull styles
  • Presentation skills, oral and in writing
  • Giving and receiving feedback with others
  • Improving your own personal ‘brand’

2. Category Management Essentials

AIM

This workshop aims to equip participants with an overview of the essentials of category management. It explores roles, key activities, tools, and methods category managers use to drive value from the procurement process.

Scope

This workshop explores practical contexts in which practitioners in the procurement process may interact with others both inside and outside their own organisation.   The workshop will develop skills and confidence in diagnostic interviews, presentations, small group facilitation and influencing

Who the course is designed for:

This workshop will be of benefit to practitioners whose role involves them in interacting with others, and who wish to develop their personal confidence and capability in communicating more effectively.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

Attendance will help raise awareness of the category management process and the tools that may be used. As well as this participants will gain three key benefits from attending:

  • More appreciation of what category management involves, and the importance of category management to deliver better outcomes
  • More appreciation of the tools and other resources available to support category managers
  • Less likelihood of the category management process failing to realise the planned benefits

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:

  • Describe the category management framework and identify the ways in which value may be created or lost through effective (or ineffective) category management
  • Define the role of the category manager and describe (in overview) how that role relates to other stakeholders supporting effective category management
  • Identify the tools and resources that are appropriate at each phase of category management

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles. The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

  • Communication skills in overview
  • Interpersonal skills overview
  • Questioning skills and diagnosing information
  • Listening and tuning in to verbal and non-verbal communication
  • Facilitating small groups and teams
  • Influencing people using push and pull styles
  • Presentation skills, oral and in writing
  • Giving and receiving feedback with others
  • Improving your own personal ‘brand’
Course code: 105

3. Communications Skills

AIM

The aim of the workshop is to develop participants’ capability to build rapport with

SCOPE

This intensive one-day workshop provides a high level overview of the end-to-end category management process.

WHO IS THE COURSE DESIGNED FOR:

The workshop will benefit those who are involved in strategic sourcing and category management.   In particular this course will benefit people who are new to category management or who may contribute to category management as part of their duties, or those who require a ‘refresher’.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

Attendance will help  develop your capability and confidence and equip you with practical skills that can be deployed in workplace interactions.

As well as this delegates will gain three key benefits from attending:

  1. More confidence in leading and facilitating interactions with others working in and around the supply chain
  2. More effective communication will help foster improved relationships and better mutual understanding with stakeholders
  3. Less likelihood that stakeholder relationships will be compromised through poor communication behaviours or failure to build appropriate levels of rapport and engagement

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles.The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

  • Communication skills in overview
  • Interpersonal skills overview
  • Questioning skills and diagnosing information
  • Listening and tuning in to verbal and non-verbal communication
  • Facilitating small groups and teams
  • Influencing people using push and pull styles
  • Presentation skills, oral and in writing
  • Giving and receiving feedback with others
  • Improving your own personal ‘brand’

4. Conflict Resolution

AIM

This workshop aims to  provide a powerful avenue for significant growth. Conflict  resolution involves recognising and managing the particular conflict.

SCOPE

This intensive one-day workshop provides ..

WHO THE COURSE IS DESIGNED FOR

The workshop will benefit those who involved in managing challenging  suppliers and contracts. These may include strategy, planning and resource managers, service delivery managers,  contracts personnel, operations and divisional managers and most importantly procurement and purchasing  managers.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

Attendance will help  to better procurement outcomes. It will equip you with more  understanding to ensure procurement decisions

  • Resolve workplace conflict and build a common understanding and framework for working through challenging conflict situations
  • Develop conflict resolution strategies for quickly and effectively recognising, resolving and preventing conflict.
  • Incorporate a structured and consistent process when dealing with suppliers

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:

  • Gain a thorough understanding of the sources, causes and types of conflict
  • • Master all six phases of the conflict resolution process
  • • Learn to apply conflict resolution approaches
  • • Learn how to use parts of the conflict resolution process to recognise and prevent conflict before it escalates
  • • Develop communication tools such as agreement frames and open questions

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles.The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

5. Contract Management Essentials

AIM

This workshop aims to equip participants with awareness of the essentials of contract management. It explores roles, tools, techniques and methods contract managers use to add value to contract management.

SCOPE

This intensive one-day workshop explores the end-to-end contract management process to awareness level. There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles.

WHO THE COURSE IS DESIGNED FOR

The workshop will benefit those who undertake contract management as part of their duties, and in particular people who are new to contract management or require a ‘refresher’. It is especially relevant to those who are responsible for delivering outputs or outcomes by working with external service providers.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

Attendance will help raise awareness of the whole of government Contract Management Framework, process and the tools that may be used. As well as this participants will gain three key benefits from attending:

  • More appreciation of the importance of contract management to deliver better outcomes
  • More appreciation of the Contract Management Framework, tools and other resources available to support contract managers
  • Less likelihood of the contract management process being reactive and focused upon ‘fire fighting’

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:

  • Describe the Contract Management Framework and identify the ways in which value may be created or destroyed through effective contract management
  • Define the role of the contract manager and understand how that role relates to other stakeholders supporting effective contract management
  • Identify the tools and resources that are appropriate at each phase of contract management
  • Understand what a ‘value risk’ approach to contract management means, and adopt contract management processes consistent with the risk and value profile of the contract

COURSE STRUCTURE

The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of external service providers in contributing to departmental results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer from the workshop to the workplace.?

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

Overview of the Contract Management Framework

  • Reading the contract
  • Value risk approach to contract management
  • Roles and responsibilities
  • Developing a contract management plan
  • Setting up the contract
  • Managing the contract
  • Closing out the contract
  • Review of tools and templates
Course code: 102

6. Negotiation Essentials

AIM

This workshop aims to equip participants with awareness of the negotiation process and the tools, techniques and methods negotiators use to achieve better outcomes.

SCOPE

This intensive one-day workshop explores negotiation from start to finish, and the behaviours and methods that can be deployed throughout the negotiation process.

WHO THE COURSE IS DESIGNED FOR

The workshop will benefit those newly involved in the negotiation process, and those who wish to refresh their appreciation of the skills and behaviours which underpin superior performance.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

Attendance will improve awareness of the negotiation process and the importance of planning and preparation, as well as what to do and say at each phase of the process. As well as this participants will gain three key benefits from attending:

  1. Greater appreciation of the importance of preparation and planning to achieve better outcomes
  2. Greater confidence in knowing what to do and say at each phase
  3. Reduce likelihood of losing value through making elementary mistakes in the negotiation process.

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:

1 Describe the negotiation process in terms of the end to end process and demonstrate the behaviours that are appropriate at each phase.

  1. Conduct negotiation planning in a way that allows the organisation to define what are the key objectives and how they may be achieved.
  2. Perform in negotiations in a way that makes realisation of negotiation objectives more likely. 4. Demonstrate a range of persuasion methods and behave appropriately in deploying each of them. 5. Describe how the negotiator may control the conduct the negotiation and demonstrate capability in performing these behaviours.

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles. The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

  • The Negotiation Process
  • What makes a good negotiator?
  • Planning for the negotiation
  • Building person-to-person relationships
  • Probing the issues
  • Deploying persuasion methods
  • Reaching agreement
  • Tactics and ploys
Course code: 103

7. Positive Problem Solving

AIM

This workshop aims to diagnose the right problem and creating a culture of solutions thinking is critical in business today

SCOPE

This intensive one-day workshop provides methods to get to the heart of a problem quickly, diagnose, find ideas and rectify it, increases performance and ownership of solutions.

WHO THE COURSE IS DESIGNED FOR

This workshop will be of benefit to practitioners whose role involves them leading or influencing others, and who wish to develop their capability in solving problems, creating a solutions culture and engaging others to step into solution mode.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

  • Increased confidence in leading and facilitating others through problems and solutions.
  • The ability to encourage increased ownership of solutions and follow through.
  • More effective problem solving will increase collaboration and decrease reliance on others for solutions, therefore building capability and team confidence.
  • Creates a culture where innovation thinking can flourish and be encouraged.

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:

  • Develop your own confidence and that of your team in diagnosing the heart of a problem, to then deal with the real issues at hand.
  • Develop your ability to engage with and facilitate small groups through problem solving tools and processes.
  • Develop key messages and methods to increase collaboration and a culture of increased ownership of problems and solutions.
  • Develop the capability to communicate a range of decision points related to problems and solutions and drive consensus where required.
  • Develop the capability to facilitate, or to teach others, the use of all Problem Solving Processes (PSP’s) such as Sistema, Fishbone Diagnostics, Circles of Control and Influence, Payoff Matrix, Force Field Analysis and more

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles. The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

  • Problem solving skills in overview.
  • Understanding where problems start.
  • Driving commitment to solutions.
  • Intro to Problem Solving Processes (PSP’s).
  • Applying PSP to your real problems.
  • Innovation thinking.
  • How to set up a PSP for others.
  • When and where to use PSP’s.
  • Tools to assist

8. Procurement Analysis Essentials

AIM

This workshop aims to ..

SCOPE

This intensive one-day workshop provides ..

WHO THE COURSE IS DESIGNED FOR

The workshop will benefit those who..

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

Attendance will help …

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles. The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

9. Procurement Essentials

AIM

This workshop aims to equip participants with an overview of the strategic sourcing process. It explores roles, key activities and methods used to drive value from the procurement process.

SCOPE

This intensive one-day workshop provides a high level overview of the end-to-end sourcing process.

WHO THE COURSE IS DESIGNED FOR

The workshop will benefit those who are involved in the procurement/sourcing process and who perform activities that are part of the sourcing process.  In particular this course will benefit people who are new to procurement or sourcing or who may require a ‘refresher’.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

Attendance will help raise awareness of the sourcing process and the tools that may be used. As well as this participants will gain three key benefits from attending:

  • More appreciation of the importance of planning to deliver better outcomes
  • More appreciation of the tools and other resources available to support strategic  sourcing
  • Awareness of ‘tips and traps’ of how to deliver a procurement process that drives outcomes and value for money

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:

  • Describe the strategic sourcing process and identify the ways in which value may be created (or lost) through effective (or ineffective) management of the sourcing process
  • Identify the relationships that the sourcing team need to establish with internal and external stakeholders, including category managers.
  • Identify the tools and resources that are appropriate at each phase of the strategic sourcing process
  • Relate strategic sourcing and category management to the end-to-end procurement process

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles. The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

  • What is ‘sourcing’?
  • Why planning is key to achieving better outcomes
  • Understanding the customer’s needs and outcomes
  • Understanding the supply market
  • How can we drive value for money outcomes?
  • Engaging the market – selecting a sourcing strategy
  • Evaluating suppliers
  • Why contracts matter
  • Key sourcing challenges
Course code: 101

10. Procurement for Non-Procurement Practitioners

AIM

This workshop aims to introduce part time participants in the procurement process to the goals, processes, tools and techniques of procurement. It explores the basics of procurement in a jargon-free way targeted at part time participants.

SCOPE

This intensive one-day workshop explores the practical skills of procurement in terms of managing low(er) value transactions and understanding the risks and opportunities in the procurement process. There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 40 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles.

WHO THE COURSE IS DESIGNED FOR

The workshop is targeted at part time participants in the procurement process, who are probably not working in a full time procurement role, but who need to manage basic procurement tasks.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

Attendance will help build understanding of the end to end procurement process, and as well as this, participants will gain three key benefits from attending:

  • More appreciation of choosing the right type of specification
  • More capability in finding and evaluating suppliers
  • Less likelihood of the procurement process failing to deliver the intended outcomes

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:

  • Describe the end to end procurement process
  • Describe the risks and opportunities in the procurement and identify the controls that are appropriate to manage the process
  • Apply a variety of principles to simple and/or lower value acquisitions to manage acquisitions both from existing contractual solutions and when no arrangements exist
  • Manage simple bid processes and ensure that the best solution is selected

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles. The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

  • Overview of how the procurement process can deliver value for money
  • Risks and opportunities in the procurement process
  • What do we need?
  • Writing the specification
  • Understanding suppliers and the market
  • Developing a procurement plan
  • Managing the bid process
  • Evaluating offers and selecting the best offer
  • Making sure that we get what we paid for

11. Sales Skills for Procurement

AIM

The aim of the workshop is to equip participants with an awareness of sales techniques in order to neutralise supplier’s tactics, and to emulate sales behaviours in influencing internal stakeholders during the procurement process.

SCOPE

This workshop explores business to business sales techniques and particularly the ways in which sales practitioners seek to influence the sales/procurement process for significant sales. The workshop will address both how the procurement team can seek to neutralise the tactics and strategies of the sales person, and how the procurement practitioner can emulate the tactics and behaviours of the sales person in order to manage the internal and external interfaces.

WHO THE COURSE IS DESIGNED FOR

This course will benefit those involved in category management, strategic sourcing, procurement or vendor management who manage complex business to business acquisition projects.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

Attendance will help practitioners reduce the likelihood that their procurement process is subverted by suppliers’ sales processes. As well as this delegates will gain three key benefits from attending:

  • More understanding of supplier’s sales techniques in order to neutralise supplier’s tactics
  • More engagement of the client’s business and better alignment to the procurement project’s goals and objectives
  • Less likelihood that the procurement process is sabotaged or subverted by the participants in a bid or negotiation process

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:

  • Describe the sales process and a variety of methods that sales people use to influence buying behaviour in business to business sales
  • Identify which sales strategies, tactics and behaviours can be adopted to influence stakeholders within our own organisations
  • Develop appropriate mechanisms to neutralise the influence of sales people on the procurement process
  • Drive out real business needs in an agnostic way that ensure that procurement decisions are reached in an environment of probity and transparency
  • Detect and neutralise a variety of common negotiation tactics and promote a culture in negotiations of transparency and ethical behaviour

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles. The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

  • Selling to’ versus ‘buying from’; the change in business to business sales processes
  • The ‘hard sell’ and features and benefits
  • The “soft sell” and value based sales
  • Strategic selling and buying facilitation
  • Accessing and engaging the ‘VITO’
  • Key ways salespeople try to influence the procurement process
  • Negotiating tactics and ploys
  • Needs identification; explicit and latent needs
  • How procurement practitioners can outwit the sales person

12. Probity for Commercial Managers

AIM

This workshop aims to equip delegates with an appreciation of the current issues in Probity in Procurement in Local Government

SCOPE

This intensive workshop explores the Probity issues confronting those involved In Local Government Procurement

WHO THE COURSE IS DESIGNED FOR

The workshop will benefit Local Government personnel involved in procurement and its oversight.

BENEFITS OF ATTENDING

  • Attendance will help raise awareness of where probity issues can and do arise in context of Local Government Procurement. Additionally delegates will benefit by acquiring:
  • As well as this participants will gain three key benefits from attending:
  • An appreciation of the rationale behind probity issues in Local Government Procurement;
  • An understanding of how probity issues can arise in various stages of Local Government Procurement processes;
  • Insight into lessening risk on probity issues in Local Government Procurement

KEY LEARNING OUTCOMES

  • By the end of the workshop delegates will be able to:
  • Describe the purposes of probity requirements;
  • An awareness of a range of probity pitfalls at the various stages of procurement processes;
  • An awareness of how to deal with probity issues as they arise

COURSE STRUCTURE

There will be pre- and post-workshop activities totalling about 90 minutes additional workload, as the workshop is founded upon 70/20/10 principles. The pre-workshop activity will stimulate thought about the role of a category manager in contributing to organisational results. The workshop will be led by an experienced facilitator, and will include nine sessions involving exercises, case studies, presentations and facilitated discussions. The post-workshop activity will seek to reinforce the learning and to maximise the transfer of knowledge from the workshop to the workplace.

HIGH LEVEL SESSION PLAN

  • Introduction – Procurement in Local Government
  • The legislative and policy requirements
  • Probity and Process and Interrelation with Procurement
  • Probity and process – Contract Formation
  • Probity and process – Contract Management
  • Probity and process – Contract Enforcement
  • Probity and process – Contract Termination
  • Staff Training
  • Probity in Action – Advice and Audit

13. Commercial Acumen Essentials

This workshop is perfect for those starting out as a Commercial Manager, or who may have commercial responsibilities as part of their role.

This workshop aims to equip delegates with awareness of hard tools and capability in selected soft skills, so they can exercise their role in order to release commercial value. The workshop explores assertiveness and the person to person elements of procurement and contract management. The workshop adopts a pragmatic ‘commercial’ tone for dealing with unsatisfactory performance.

  • More appreciation of the need to balance risk and reward.
  • Understanding of targets and boundaries, and how to use them.
  • Ability to form business cases and conduct action planning.
Course code: 106

14. Contract Law Essentials

Understanding the ‘battle of the forms’ and the importance of contractual terms and conditions.

The workshop aims to equip the participant with an appreciation of the legal framework affecting contract formation, performance and termination. Explore the risks in commercial dealings and how contractual terms clarify rights and obligations between parties.

  • Increased confidence and more appreciation of the basis on which contractual terms are agreed
  • More effective understanding of the contractual remedies for breach of contract.
  • Lowers the likelihood of exposing the organisation to contractual risk through ignorant and/or inappropriate contractual behaviour.
Course code: 104
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